نقش شبکه‌سازی در حل مسائل راهبردی خوشه‌های کسب‌‏وکار طلا و توسعه اقتصاد منطقه‌ای

نوع مقاله: علمی _ پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار، اقتصاد، گروه مدیریت بازرگانی، دانشکده مدیریت، دانشگاه تهران

2 دانشجوی دکتری مدیریت بازرگانی، دانشکده مدیریت، دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

مسائل راهبردی خوشههای کسبوکار منتج از عملکرد ضعیف اکثر بنگاه های عضو خوشه در برخی از حلقه های زنجیره ارزش است، که منجر به کاهش ارزشافزوده خوشه میگردد. با عنایت به اینکه مسائل راهبردی خوشه مشکل مشترک بسیاری از بنگاههای فعال در خوشه است، بنابراین سرمایهگذاری هدفمند در جهت حل آنها باعث میشود ارزشافزوده جمعی بنگاهها افزایش یافته که در نتیجه آن زمینه توسعه پایدار اقتصاد منطقهای فراهم میآید. در پژوهش حاضر از الگوی محکزنی مبتنی بر تحلیل زنجیره ارزش رشته صنعت، جهت شناسایی شکافهای عملکردی و مسائل راهبردی خوشه استفاده شده است. بر این اساس، در گام اول، با استفاده از روش تحقیق مطالعه موردی، زنجیره ارزش خوشه طلا مورد تحلیل قرار گرفت. در گام
دوم، به منظور شناسایی شکافهای عملکردی خوشه، با استفاده از روش مطالعه تطبیقی، زنجیره ارزش خوشه با زنجیره ارزش رقبا مقایسه گردید. در گام سوم با انجام مصاحبه با خبرگان صنعت و تحلیل عوامل کلیدی موفقیت، دلایل بروز مسائل راهبردی خوشه و راهکارهای حل آنها مورد بررسی قرار گرفتند. بر اساس نتایج پژوهش، مسائل راهبردی خوشه طلا عبارتند از: مهارت پایین نیروی کار، ضعف در فناوری تولید، ضعف در بازارشناسی، ضعف در طراحی زیورآلات، ضعف در برندینگ و بازارهای محدود محلی. حل این معضلات
به دلیل محدودیتهای مالی، بازاریابی و منابع انسانی بنگاههای عضو خوشه طلا مستلزم شبکهسازی و اقدام جمعی است. همچنین از طریق فعالیتهای شبکهسازی ذینفعان خوشه توانمند می شوند که در نتیجه، اعضای خوشه بدون نیاز به حمایت بیرونی و با اتکا بر توانمندی جمعی خود میتوانند مسائل خوشه را حل نموده و زمینه توسعه درونزا منطقه را فراهم آورند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


سلیمانی، غلامرضا، وحدت، سیاوش، موسوی نقابی، سید مجتبی، انوشه، مرتضی (1395). راهنمای زنجیره ارزش، قم، انتشارات آیین محمود.
موسوی نقابی، سید مجتبی (1388). بررسی عوامل مؤثر بر مزیت رقابتی پایدار در بنگاه‏های کوچک و متوسط صادرکننده مصالح ساختمانی (بهداشتی). کارشناسی ارشد، دانشگاه تهران، دانشکده مدیریت

Abraham, A, Manzanas, J, Gregorio, R, Jover, A & Agoncillo, T (2003). The State of the Sector Report- Costume Jewelry. Pearl2 Project.
Alfaro, L, Antràs, P, Chor, D & Conconi, P (2015). Internalizing global value chains: A firm-level analysis (No. w21582). National Bureau of Economic Research.
Anbumozhi, V, Gunjima, T, Prem Ananth, A & Visvanathan, C (2010). An assessment of inter-firm networks in a wood biomass industrial cluster: lessons for integrated policymaking. Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy, 12(4), 365-372.
Babbie, E. R (2013). The Basics of Social Research: Cengage Learning.
Bamford, C. E & West, G. P (2010). Strategic Management: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Bauer, M, Ismailova, A, Okutayeva, S & Bencheva, N (2016). Development of Regional Meat Cluster as a Means to Raise the Competitiveness of Livestock Industry. International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education, 11(7), 2057-2070.
Brown, P, McNaughton, R & Bell, J (2010). Marketing externalities in industrial clusters : a literature review and evidence from the Christchurch, New Zealand electronics cluster. Journal of international entrepreneurship, 8(2, (6)), 168-181.
Bryman, A (2012). Social Research Methods: OUP Oxford.
Buttery, E. A & Buttery, E (1994). Business Networks: Reaching New Markets with Low-Cost Strategies: Longman Business & Professional.
Chetty, S & Blankenburg Holm, D (2000). Internationalisation of small to medium-sized manufacturing firms: a network approach. International Business Review, 9(1), 77-93.
Crabtree, B. F & Miller, W. L (1999). Doing Qualitative Research: SAGE Publications.
Dahlström, K & Ekins, P (2006). Combining economic and environmental dimensions: Value chain analysis of UK iron and steel flows. Ecological Economics, 58(3), 507-519.
Davenport, T. H, Leibold, M & Voelpel, S. C (2007). Strategic Management in the Innovation Economy: Strategic Approaches and Tools for Dynamic Innovation Capabilities: Wiley.
Dekker, H. C (2003). Value chain analysis in interfirm relationships: a field study. Management Accounting Research, 14(1), 1-23.
Dennis, C (2000). Networking for marketing advantage. Management Decision, 38(4), 287-292.
Farquhar, J. D (2012). Case Study Research for Business: SAGE Publications.
Felzensztein, C & Gimmon, E (2007). The influence of culture and size upon inter-firm marketing cooperation: a case study of the salmon farming industry. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 25(4), 377-393.
Felzensztein, C & Gimmon, E (2008). Industrial Clusters and Social Networking for enhancing inter-firm cooperation: The case of natural resources-based industries in Chile. Journal of business market management, 2(4), 187-202.
Gereffi, G & Fernandez-Stark, K (2016). Global value chain analysis: a primer.
Gereffi, G & Lee, J (2016). Economic and social upgrading in global value chains and industrial clusters: Why governance matters. Journal of Business Ethics, 133(1), 25-38.
Gerrefi, G (2007). The gold jewelry value chain in the district of Valenza, Italy. Duke University, Durham, USA.
Gilmore, A, Carson, D & Rocks, S (2006). Networking in SMEs: Evaluating its contribution to marketing activity. International Business Review, 15(3), 278-293.
Giuliani, E, Matta, A & Pietrobelli, C (2016). Networks, cluster development programs, and performance: the electronics cluster in Córdoba, Argentina. The Impact Evaluation of Cluster Development Programs, 117.
Giuliani, E, Pietrobelli, C & Rabellotti, R (2005). Upgrading in Global Value Chains: Lessons from Latin American Clusters. World Development, 33(4), 549-573.
Grant, B, Fleming, E, Mounter, S, McFarlane, J & Griffith, G (2014). Collective action in the value chain: A conceptual framework for analysis and policy for the Australian wine industry. In 58th Conference of the Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, 4-7.
Gulati, R, Nohria, N & Zaheer, A (2006). Strategic Networks. In D. Hahn & B. Taylor (Eds.), Strategische Unternehmungsplanung - Strategische Unternehmungsführung, 293-309, Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
He, Z & Rayman‐Bacchus, L (2010). Cluster network and innovation under transitional economies. Chinese Management Studies, 4(4), 360-384.
Hill, C & Jones, G (2011). Essentials of Strategic Management: Cengage Learning.
Jones, O & Tilley, F (2007). Competitive Advantage in SMEs: Organising for Innovation and Change: Wiley.
Kajikawa, Y, Takeda, Y, Sakata, I & Matsushima, K (2010). Multiscale analysis of interfirm networks in regional clusters. Technovation, 30(3), 168-180.
Karaev, A, Koh, S. C. L & Szamosi, L. T (2007). The cluster approach and SME competitiveness: a review. Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, 18(7), 818-835.
Karlsson, C (2010). Handbook of Research on Cluster Theory: Edward Elgar Publishing, Incorporated.
Karlsson, C, Johansson, B & Stough, R (2005). Industrial Clusters and Inter-firm Networks: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Ketels, C (2003). The Development of the cluster concept–present experiences and further developments. Paper presented at the NRW conference on clusters, Duisburg, Germany.
Kim, S-Y & Huynh, T. A (2008). Improving project management performance of large contractors using benchmarking approach. International Journal of Project Management, 26(7), 758-769.
Köroğlu, B. A, ECERAL, T. Ö & Uğurlar, A (2009). The Story of a Jewelry Cluster in Istanbul Metropolitan Area: Grand Bazaar (Kapalıçarsı). Gazi University Journal of Science, 22(4), 383-394.
Lake, P. W. (2004). Business networks within a regional industrial cluster. University of Southern Queensland.  
Lakhal, S. Y, Sidibé, H & H'Mida, S (2008). Comparing conventional and certified organic cotton supply chains: the case of Mali. International journal of agricultural resources, governance and ecology, 7(3), 243-255.
Lechner, C & Gudmundsson, S. V (2016). The interplay of networks and firm performance within high-tech clusters. Entrepreneurship and Cluster Dynamics, 129.
Lin, C. Y. Y & Zhang, J (2005). Changing structures of SME Networks: Lessons from the publishing industry in Taiwan. Long Range Planning, 38(2), 145-162.
Mallick, S, Shivakoti, G. P, Datta, A, Kuwornu, J. K & Asbrouck, J. V (2017). Value chain analysis of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) seed in Bangladesh. International Journal of Value Chain Management, 8(2), 151-170.
Martin, V. B & Gynnild, A (2011). Grounded theory: the philosophy, method, and work of Barney Glaser: Universal-Publishers.
McGrath, H (2008). Developing a relational capability construct for SME network marketing using cases and evidence from Irish and Finnish SMEs. Waterford Institute of Technology.  
Mesquita, L. F (2007). Starting over when the bickering never ends: Rebuilding aggregate trust among clustered firms through trust facilitators. Academy of Management Review, 32(1), 72-91.
Miller, N. J, Besser, T. L & Sattler Weber, S (2010). Networking as marketing strategy: a case study of small community businesses. Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 13(3), 253-270.
Mitchell, J, Font, X & Li, S (2015). What is the impact of hotels on local economic development? Applying value chain analysis to individual businesses. Anatolia, 26(3), 347-358.
Nazari, M, Hasangholipour, T, Soleimani, G, Abbasian, E & Moussavi Neghabi, S. M (2017). Investigation of the Productivity of Networking Activities and Improvement Projects on the Sales and Employment of Iranian Agricultural Clusters. Iranian Economic Review, 21(1), 45-70.
Nefedov, K & Panibratov, A (2016). Dimensions of global value chain analysis: New theoretical developments and methodological issues No. 6453.
Nwankwo, S, & Gbadamosi, T. (2010). Entrepreneurship marketing: principles and practice of SME marketing: Routledge.
O'Dwyer, M, Gilmore, A & Carson, D (2009). Innovative marketing in SMEs: a theoretical framework. European Business Review, 21(6), 504-515.
OECD, S. G (1999). Boosting innovation–the cluster approach.
Olkkonen, R, Tikkanen, H & Alajoutsijärvi, K (2000). The role of communication in business relationships and networks. Management Decision, 38(6), 403-409.
Papautsky, E. L, Crandall, B, Grome, A & Greenberg, J. M (2016). A case study of source triangulation: using artifacts as knowledge elicitation tools in healthcare space design (vol 9, pg 347, 2015). JOURNAL OF COGNITIVE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING, 10(1), 111-111.
Porter, M (2000). The competitive advantage of nations. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Porter, M. E (1985). Advantage, Competitive Free Press, New York.
Rawat, D, Mittal, R. K & Aggarwal, V. S (2017). Networks with Cluster Stakeholders as a Business Strategy to Enhance Performance: A Conceptual Framework.
Reamer, D (1997). How to identify the key elements of successful industry alliances. Oil & gas journal, 95(14), 25-28.
Remenyi, D (2013). Case study research: The quick guide series.
Rieple, A & Singh, R (2010). A value chain analysis of the organic cotton industry: The case of UK retailers and Indian suppliers. Ecological Economics, 69(11), 2292-2302.
Rutten, R & Boekema, F (2007). Regional social capital: Embeddedness, innovation networks and regional economic development. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 74(9), 1834-1846.
Shafaeddin, M (2012). Competitiveness and development: Myth and realities: Anthem Press.
Stadtler, H (2015). Supply chain management: An overview. In Supply chain management and advanced planning (pp. 3-28). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Stejskal, J & Hajek, P (2012). Competitive advantage analysis: a novel method for industrial clusters identification. Journal of Business Economics and Management, 13(2), 344-365.
Taglioni, D & Winkler, D (2016). Making global value chains work for development. World Bank Publications.
Theyel, N (2013). Extending open innovation throughout the value chain by small and medium-sized manufacturers. International Small Business Journal, 31(3), 256-274.
Thompson, J. L & Martin, F (2010). Strategic management: Awareness & change: Cengage Learning EMEA.
Thompson, T. M (2005). Essays on cooperation in developing country industrial clusters.
Thorgren, S, Wincent, J & Örtqvist, D (2009). Designing interorganizational networks for innovation: An empirical examination of network configuration, formation and governance. Journal of Engineering and Technology Management, 26(3), 148-166.
Vernay, A. L, D'Ippolito, B & Pinkse, J (2016, January). The role of the government in promoting and steering cluster development. In Academy of Management Proceedings (Vol. 2016, No. 1, p. 11470). Academy of Management.
Wincel, J. P (2004). Lean supply chain management: a handbook for strategic procurement: Productivity Press.
Yin, R. K (2003). Case study research: design and methods: Sage.
Yingming, Z (2009). Analysis of industrial clusters in China: CRC Press.
Yoshino, Y (2011). Industrial Clusters and Micro and Small Enterprises in Africa: From Survival to Growth: World Bank Publications.
Zainal, Z. (2017). Case study as a research method. Jurnal Kemanusiaan, 5(1).